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© Andreas Bolte
[Translate to English:]
Institute of

WO Forest Ecosystems

Project

Programme Co-ordinating Centre (PCC) of ICP Forests



Level II - forest monitoring plot in Finland
© Erkki Oksanen, Luke
Level II - forest monitoring plot in Finland

In the 1980s, an increasing deterioration of forest condition in European forests was observed. This led to the establishment of the International Co-operative Program Forests (ICP Forests) under the UNECE Air Convention in 1985.

 

Background and Objective

In the 1980s, an increasing deterioration of forest condition in European forests was observed. The suspected link with the then very high levels of air pollution (especially of sulfur dioxide) led in 1985 to the adoption of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) under the UNECE Air Convention, which currently includes 42 member countries.

The annual survey of crown condition on over 5500 plots across Europe is supplemented approximately every 10-15 years by surveys of forest soils and the tree nutrient status (Level I).

In order to understand cause-effect relationships, intensive Level II monitoring is carried out on another more than 600 plots throughout Europe since 1995. On these plots, data on air quality, deposition, soil solution, meteorology, ground vegetation, tree growth, phenology, litterfall and visible ozone damage are recorded in order to assess the condition of the forest ecosystems and its changes throughout Europe.

The lead country of ICP Forests is Germany. The ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre (PCC) at the Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems in Eberswalde is responsible for the programme administration and organization, and the data management. The PCC also edits the extensive ICP Forests Manual and publishes scientific papers and brochures for policy consultancy and the general public.

Approach

Within the Level I monitoring, crown condition is assessed annually by the ICP Forests member states on a 16 by 16 km grid (in total around 6,000 plots). The same grid is used for assessments of the soil and foliar condition, which are conducted every 10 to 15 years. The Level II monitoring sites (in total around 600 plots) can be regarded as case studies.

In order to achieve maximal comparability, all data collections follow the internationally adopted ICP Forests Manual. After several quality checks, the data are fed into the ICP Forests database which is managed by the PCC. These data can then be disseminated to external and internal data applicants according to the ICP Forests data policy, which has been adopted by all 42 ICP Forests member states. Standard evaluations are also performed by the PCC along with participations in more advanced studies undertaken by different scientists from partner organizations across Europe.

Links and Downloads

http://icp-forests.net

Publications

  1. 0

    George J-P, Sanders TGM, Timmermann V, Potocic N, Lang M (2022) European-wide forest monitoring substantiate the neccessity for a joint conservation strategy to rescue European ash species (Fraxinus spp.). Sci Rep 12:4764, DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-08825-6

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn064726.pdf

  2. 1

    Michel AK, Kirchner T, Prescher A-K, Schwärzel K (eds) (2022) Forest condition in Europe : The 2022 Assessment ; ICP Forests Technical Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention). Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 103 p, ICP Forests Techn Rep 2022, DOI:10.3220/ICPTR1656330928000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn065014.pdf

  3. 2

    Geaorge JP, Sanders TGM, Neumann M, Cammalleri C, Vogt J (2022) How dry is too dry? A retrospective analysis on how global change-type droughts are driving mortality in European forests. In: International Union of Forest Research Organizations (ed) Book of abstracts : ALL IUFRO Conference 2022 : forests in a volatile world - global collaboration in sustain forests and their societal benefits : ALL-IUFRO Conference, 21-23 September 2022, Vienna, Austria. p 26

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn065878.pdf

  4. 3

    Michel AK, Kirchner T, Prescher A-K, Schwärzel K (eds) (2021) Forest Condition in Europe : The 2021 Assessment ; ICP Forests Technical Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention). Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 103 p, ICP Forests Techn Rep 2021, DOI:10.3220/ICPTR1624952851000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn063719.pdf

  5. 4

    Potocic N, Timmermann V, Ognjenovic M, Kirchner T, Prescher A-K, Ferretti M (2021) Tree health is deteriorating in the European forests. Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 4 p, ICP Forests Brief 5/2021, DOI:10.3220/ICP1638780772000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn064270.pdf

  6. 5

    Nicolas M, Michel AK (2020) Addressing challenges associated with long-term forest ecosystem monitoring. ICP Forests Techn Rep 2020:49-52

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn063237.pdf

  7. 6

    Ferretti M, Waldner P, Verstraeten A, Schmitz A, Michel AK, Zlindra D, Marchetto A, Hansen K, Pitar D, Gottardini E, Calatayud V, Haeni M, Schaub M, Kirchner T, Hiederer R, Potocic N, Timmermann V, Ognjenovic M, Schuck A, Held A, et al (2020) Criterion 2: Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality. In: State of Europe’s forests 2020. Bonn: Forest Europe, pp 52-86

  8. 7

    Michel AK, Prescher A-K, Schwärzel K (eds) (2020) Forest Condition in Europe : The 2020 Assessment ; ICP Forests Technical Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention). Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 98 p, ICP Forests Techn Rep 2020, DOI:10.3220/ICPTR1606916913000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn063028.pdf

  9. 8

    Krüger I, Sanders TGM, Potocic N, Ukonmaanaho L, Rautio P (2020) Increased evidence of nutrient imbalances in forest trees across Europe. Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 6 p, ICP Forests Brief 4/2020, DOI:10.3220/ICP1597824383000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn062577.pdf

  10. 9

    Timmermann V, Potocic N, Ognjenovic M, Kirchner T (2020) Tree crown condition in 2019. ICP Forests Techn Rep 2020:33-48

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn063236.pdf

  11. 10

    Michel AK, Prescher A-K, Schwärzel K (eds) (2019) Forest condition in Europe : 2019 technical report of ICP Forests ; Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Wien: Bundesforschungszentrum Wald, 104 p, BFW Dokum 27/2019

  12. 11

    Michel AK, Prescher A-K, Seidling W, Ferretti M (2018) A policy-relevant infrastructure for long-term, large-scale assessment and monitoring of forest ecosystems. Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 4 p, ICP Forests Brief 1/2018, DOI:10.3220/ICP1520841254000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn059737.pdf

  13. 12

    Michel AK, Seidling W, Prescher A-K (eds) (2018) Forest condition in Europe : 2018 technical report of ICP Forests ; Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Wien: Bundesforschungszentrum Wald, 92 p, BFW Dokum 25/2018

  14. 13

    Seidling W (ed) (2018) Forest conditions : ICP forests 2018 executive report. Eberswalde: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 15 p

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn060842.pdf

  15. 14

    Schaub M, Haeni M, Calatayud V, Ferretti M, Gottardini E, Michel AK, Seidling W (2018) Ozone concentrations are decreasing but exposure remains high in European forests. Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 6 p, ICP Forests Brief 3/2018, DOI:10.3220/ICP1525258743000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn059816.pdf

  16. 15

    Schmitz A, Sanders TGM, Michel AK, Verstraeten A, Hansen K, Waldner P, Prescher A-K, Zlindra D (2018) Status and trends of inorganic nitrogen deposition to forests in Europe. Eberswalde: Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, 4 p, ICP Forests Brief 2/2018, DOI:10.3220/ICP1520841823000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn059738.pdf

  17. 16

    Michel AK, Seidling W (eds) (2017) Forest condition in Europe : 2017 technical report of ICP Forests ; Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Wien: Bundesforschungszentrum Wald, 128 p, BFW Dokum 24/2017

  18. 17

    Michel AK, Seidling W (eds) (2016) Forest condition in Europe : 2016 technical report of ICP forests ; Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Wien: BFW Bundesforschungszentrum für Wald, 206 p, BFW Dokum 23/2016

  19. 18

    Seidling W (ed) (2016) Forest conditions : ICP forests 2016 executive report. Eberswalde: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 20 p

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn058645.pdf

  20. 19

    Michel AK, Seidling W (2016) Introduction. BFW Dokum 23/2016:9-10

  21. 20

    Seidling W (2016) The monitoring and research infrastructure of ICP forests. BFW Dokum 23/2016:11-19

  22. 21

    Timmermann V, Potocic N, Sanders TGM, Trotzer S, Seidling W (2016) Tree crown condition and damage causes. BFW Dokum 23/2016:20-58

  23. 22

    Ferretti M, Fischer U, Hansen K, Michel AK, Sanders TGM, Seidling W (2015) Criterion 2: Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality, Indicator 2.1 Deposition of air pollutants. In: Forest Europe Liason Unit Mardrid (ed) State of Europe’s forests 2015 report. pp 90-95

  24. 23

    Köhl M, San-Miguel-Ayanz J, Torres GD, Durrant T, Ferretti M, Fischer U, Hansen K, Hiederer R, Michel AK, Sanders TGM, Seidling W, Moffat AJ, Weiss G (2015) Criterion 2: Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality. In: Forest Europe Liason Unit Mardrid (ed) State of Europe’s forests 2015 report. pp 89-100

  25. 24

    Waldner P, Thimonier A, Graf Pannatier E, Etzold S, Schmitt M, Marchetto A, Rautio P, Derome K, Nieminen TM, Nevalainen S, Lindroos A-J, Merilä P, Kindermann G, Neumann M, Fischer R, Fleck S, Sanders TGM, Michel AK, Iost S, Lorenz K, et al (2015) Exceedance of critical loads and of critical limits impact tree nutrition across Europe. Ann Forest Sci 72(7):929-939, DOI:10.1007/s13595-015-0489-2

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn055317.pdf

  26. 25

    Michel AK, Seidling W (eds) (2015) Forest condition in Europe : 2015 technical report of ICP Forests ; report under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Wien: Bundesforschungszentrum Wald, 182 p, BFW Dokum 21/2015

  27. 26

    Michel AK, Seidling W (2015) Introduction. BFW Dokum 21/2015: 6

  28. 27

    Seidling W (2015) Materials and methods: ICP Forests [online]. NIVA Rep 6946: 17, zu finden in <http://www.icp-waters.no/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=XaemU1AmKaY%3d&tabid=36> [zitiert am 06.01.2016]

  29. 28

    Suz LM, Barsoum N, Benham S, Cheffings C, Cox F, Hackett L, Jones AG, Mueller GM, Orme DL, Seidling W, Linde S van der, Bidartondo MI (2015) Monitoring ectomycorrhizal fungi at large scales for science, forest management, fungal conservation and environmental policy. Ann Forest Sci 72(7):877-885, DOI:10.1007/s13595-014-0447-4

  30. 29

    Seidling W, Haelbich H, Sanders TGM (2015) Relationships between defoliation of forest trees and modelled nitrogen deposition. BFW Dokum 21/2015:50-60

  31. 30

    Ferretti M, Sanders TGM, Michel AK, Calatayud V, Cools N, Gottardini E, Haeni M, Hansen K, Potocic N, Schaub M, Timmermann V, Trotzer S, Vanguelova EI (2015) The impact of nitrogen deposition and ozone on the sustainability of European forests : ICP forests 2014 executive report [online]. 32 p, zu finden in <http://www.icp-forests.net> [zitiert am 09.12.2015]

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn056053.pdf

  32. 31

    Seidling W, Michel AK (2015) The monitoring system of ICP Forests. BFW Dokum 21/2015:7-11

  33. 32

    Seidling W, Trotzer S, Sanders TGM, Timmermann V, Potocic N, Michel AK (2015) Tree crown condition and damage causes. BFW Dokum 21/2015:12-49

  34. 33

    Potocic N, Timmermann V, Trotzer S (2015) Trends in forest responses (ICP Forests): Crown condition [online]. NIVA Rep 6946:30-31, zu finden in <http://www.icp-waters.no/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=XaemU1AmKaY%3d&tabid=36> [zitiert am 06.01.2016]

  35. 34

    Seidling W, Travaglini D, Meyer P, Waldner P, Fischer R, Granke O, Chirici G, Corona P (2014) Dead wood and stand structure - relationships for forest plots across Europe. iForest 7: 269-281, DOI:10.3832/ifor1057-007

  36. 35

    Giordani P, Calatayud V, Stofer S, Seidling W, Granke O, Fischer R (2014) Detecting the nitrogen critical loads on European forests by means of epiphytic lichens : a signal-to-noise evaluation. Forest Ecol Manag 311(1):29-40, DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.048

  37. 36

    Waldner P, Marchetto A, Thimonier A, Schmitt M, Rogora M, Granke O, Mues V, Hansen K, Pihl-Karlsson G, Zlindra D, Clarke N, Verstraeten A, Lazdins A, Schimming CG, Iacoban C, Lindroos A-J, Vanguelova EI, Fischer U, Seidling W, Fischer R, et al (2014) Detection of temporal trends in atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen and sulphate to forests in Europe. Atmos Environ 95:363-374, DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.06.054

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn053616.pdf

  38. 37

    Fischer R, Scheuschner T, Schlutow A, Granke O, Mues V, Olschofsky K, Nagel H-D (2014) Effects evaluation and risk assessment of air pollutants deposition at European monitoring sites of the ICP forests. In: Steyn DG, Builtjes PJH (eds) Air Pollution Modelling and its Application : XXII. Proceedings of the 32nd NATO/SPS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution and its Application ; Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1-11 May 2012. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp 89-93, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5577-2_15

  39. 38

    Michel AK, Seidling W, Lorenz M, Becher G (eds) (2014) Forest condition in Europe : 2013 technical report of ICP forests ; report under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Eberswalde ; Hamburg: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 134 p, Thünen Working Paper 19, DOI:10.3220/WP_19_2014

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn053404.pdf

  40. 39

    Michel AK, Seidling W (eds) (2014) Forest condition in Europe : 2014 technical report of ICP forests ; report under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Vienna: BFW Austrian Research Centre for Forests, 164 p, BFW Dokum 18/2014

  41. 40

    Sanders TGM, Fischer U, Seidling W, Lorenz M (2014) Reassessing critical load calculations by ecosystem feedback. Int Forestry Rev 16(5):491

  42. 41

    Fischer U, Seidling W (2014) Spatial variation of deposition in Europe. BFW Dokum 18/2014:91-101

  43. 42

    Becher G, Waldner P, Hansen K, Fischer R, Lorenz M, Seidling W (2014) Sulphate and nitrogen deposition to forests and trend analyses. Thünen Working Paper 19:55-64

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn054078.pdf

  44. 43

    Seidling W, Sanders TGM, Akselsson C, Cools N, De Marco A, De Vos B, de Vries W, Etzold S, Ferretti M, Fischer U, Giordani P, Graf Pannatier E, Hansen K, Jonard M, Marchetto A, Nevenic R, Rautio P, Reinds GJ, Skudnik M, Fischer R, et al (2014) The condition of forests in Europe : 2013 executive report. Eberswalde: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 36 p

  45. 44

    Ferretti M, Sanders TGM, Michel AK (eds) (2014) The impact of nitrogen deposition and ozone on the sustainability of European forests : ICP forests 2014 Executive Report. Hamburg: ICP Forests, 28 p

  46. 45

    Seidling W (2014) The monitoring system of ICP Forests. BFW Dokum 18/2014:7-10

  47. 46

    Seidling W, Ziche D, Beck W (2012) Climate responses and interrelations of stem increment and crown transparency in Norway spruce, Scots pine, and common beech. Forest Ecol Manag 284:196-204, DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.015

  48. 47

    Lorenz M, Becher G (eds) (2012) Forest condition in Europe : 2012 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: Institute for World Forestry, 167 p, Work Rep Inst World Forestry 2012/1

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn051886.pdf

  49. 48

    Sanders TGM, Seidling W (2012) Quality aspects in intensive forest monitoring. GI Edititon Proc 194:271-274

  50. 49

    Waldner P, Thimonier A, Schmitt M, Marchetto A, Rogora M, Granke O, Mues V, Hansen K, Pihl-Karlsson G, Zlindra D, Clarke N, Verstraeten A, Lazdins A, Schimming CG, Iacoban C, Lindroos A-J, Vanguelova EI, Seidling W, Fischer U, Fischer R, et al (2012) Sulphate and nitrogen deposition and trend analyses. Work Rep Inst World Forestry 2012/1:60-76

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn051887.pdf

  51. 50

    Fischer R, Lorenz M (eds) (2011) Forest condition in Europe : 2011 technical report of ICP forests and FutMon. Hamburg: vTI, 212 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2011/01

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/bitv/dn049376.pdf

  52. 51

    Fischer R, Lorenz M, Granke O, Mues V, Iost S, Dobben H van, Reinds GJ, de Vries W (2010) Forest condition in Europe : 2010 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: vTI, 175 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2010/01

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn047787.pdf

  53. 52

    Fischer R, Mues V, Granke O (2010) Forstliches Umweltmonitoring in Europa unter ICP Forests und die Kooperation mit der EU im Rahmen des FutMon Projektes. In: Forstwissenschaften: Grundlage nachhaltiger Waldbewirtschaftung / Forstwissenschaftliche Tagung, 22. bis 24. September 2010 an der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Ausgerichtet von den Forstwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten und dem Verband Forstlicher Forschungsanstalten . Göttingen: Cuvillier, p 185

  54. 53

    Ziche D, Seidling W (2010) Homogenisation of climate time series from ICP forests level II monitoring sites in Germany based on interpolated climate data. Ann Forest Sci 67(8):804/1-804/6, DOI:10.1051/forest/2010051

  55. 54

    Cox F, Barsoum N, Lilleskov EA, Bidartondo MI, Seidling W (2010) Mykorrhizierung von Kiefernwurzeln : Stickstoffverfügbarkeit als Einflussfaktor. AFZ Der Wald 65(24):8-10

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn047652.pdf

  56. 55

    Ziche D, Seidling W (2009) Benefits of meteorological measurements at forest monitoring sites compared with interpolated climatic data. In: Kaennel Dobbertin M (ed) Long-term ecosystem research: Understanding the present to shape the future : International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, September 7-10, 2009 ; Abstracts. p 28

  57. 56

    Lorenz M, Fischer R, Becher G, Mues V, Granke O, BratislavskayaT , Brobinsky A, Lukina N, Clarke N, Lachmanová Z, Schimming CG (2009) Forest condition in Europe : 2009 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: vTI, 81 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2009/1

  58. 57

    Lorenz M, Fischer R, Becher G, Granke O, Seidling W, Ferretti M, Schaub M, Calatayud V, Bacaro G, Gerosa G, Rocchini D, Sanz M (2008) Forest condition in Europe : 2008 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: vTI, 107 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2008/1

  59. 58

    Seidling W, Fischer R, Granke O (2008) Relationships between forest floor vegetation on ICP forests monitoring plots in Europe and basic variables in soil and nitrogen deposition. Int J Environ Stud 65(3):309-320, DOI:10.1080/00207230701862538

  60. 59

    Seidling W, Fischer R, Granke O (2008) Relationships between forest floor vegetation on ICP Forests monitoring plots in Europe and basic variables in soil and nitrogen deposition. Int J Environ Stud 65(3):311-322

  61. 60

    Lorenz M, Fischer R, Becher G, Granke O, Roskams P, Nagel HD, Kraft P (2007) Forest condition in Europe : 2007 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Institut für Weltforstwirtschaft, 98 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2007/1

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dk040406.pdf

  62. 61

    Eichhorn J, Albrecht M, Evers J (2007) Quo vadis - Forstliches Umweltmonitoring in Europa? - Ergebnisse des internationalen ICP Forests Symposiums. Forst Holz 62(3):30-33

  63. 62

    Seidling W (2007) Signals of summer drought in crown condition data from the German Level I network. Eur J Forest Res 126(4):529-544, DOI:10.1007/s10342-008-0206-x

  64. 63

    Seidling W (2006) Auswirkungen von klimatischem Trockenstress auf den Waldzustand. Eberswalde: BFH, 68 p, Arbeitsber Inst Waldökol Waldinventuren 2006/4

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dk039309.pdf

  65. 64

    Seidling W (2006) Defoliation - key parameter or cue ball of variegated influences? In: Eichhorn J (ed) Tagungsbeiträge zur internationalen Tagung des ICP Forests, Göttingen, 25.-28.10.2006. Hessen-Forst, pp 29-31

  66. 65

    Lorenz M, Fischer R, Becher G, Mues V, Seidling W, Kraft P, Nagel HD (2006) Forest condition in Europe : 2006 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Institut für Weltforstwirtschaft, 114 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2006/1

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dk038946.pdf

  67. 66

    Lorenz M, Becher G, Mues V, Fischer R, Becker R, Calatayud V, Dise N, Krause GHM, Sanz M, Ulrich E (2005) Forest condition in Europe : 2005 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products and Department of Wood Science University of Hamburg, 176 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2005/2

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dk040086.pdf

  68. 67

    Lorenz M, Becher G, Mues V, Fischer R, Ulrich E, Dobbertin M, Stofer S (2004) Forest condition in Europe : 2004 technical report of ICP forests. Hamburg: Forest Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, 96 p, Arbeitsber Inst Weltforstwirtsch Work Rep 2004/2

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dk040083.pdf

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