Assessing the biodiversity of eels (Anguillidae and Congridae) of Tanzania: Promoting Sustainable Fisheries and Habitat Protection through Environmental Monitoring and Capacity Building
About 40 anguilliform fish species are found in the waters of Tanzania (families river eels, congers and morays). Some of them are considered endangered. However, little is known about their distribution, ecology and fisheries. In view of the expected population growth and the associated growing anthropogenic impact on the environment, it is urgently necessary to assess the ecological status of water systems in order to be able to specifically designate areas with high biodiversity, which should get a high priority for protection.
Eels are traditionally fished in many coastal regions and are therefore an important source of food and income. However, the populations of several eel species are declining worldwide and it is assumed that various anthropogenic factors play an important role in this decline. As migratory fish that use a great variety of habitats, eels are dependent on the passability of the rivers and are subject to a large variety of anthropogenic impacts. Hence, they are particularly vulnerable.
About 40 anguilliform fish species of the moray, conger and river eel families have been described for Tanzania. However, little is known about their distribution, ecology and use. So far, they have not been the focus of biological and fishery research, and catches are not recorded in detail.
Four species from of the genus Anguilla are known to exist in East Africa: Anguilla bengalensis, A. bicolor, A. marmorata and A. mossambica. However, knowledge about their distribution and other basic biological parameters is patchy, especially for Tanzania, although two of these species, A. bengalensis and A. bicolor, are classified as "near threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
In addition to habitat loss, these tropical eels are facing a growing interest for the international live fish trade as seed for aquaculture operations, due to the decline of temperate eel species like European and Japanese eel. Furthermore, the population growth expected for the coming decades could lead to an increased risk of overfishing as well as a progressing degradation of aquatic habitats, especially near the coast (e.g. barriers, pollution).
Sustainable management does not only require a political and administrative framework, but also sufficient knowledge about the status of the resources and their use. In addition to documenting the current status, the project should therefore also develop the basis for a long-term, but cost-effective monitoring concept.
The project partners have defined four main project goals:
The study, which is funded by the Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) in the MeerWissen program, focuses on sections of the most important coastal rivers in Tanzania, namely Rufiji in the Rufiji district and Pangani in the Tanga region, where eels are frequently fished.
The study will include river sections as well as estuaries and coastal areas. In both rivers, ecological degradation with economic and social effects can already be observed. The species diversity in the rivers and coastal waters will be recorded, documented photographically and analyzed using modern molecular genetic methods. For eels, some biological aspects, e.g. the diet composition and contaminant load will be examined more closely. In addition, first investigations of the oceanic spawning migration will be conducted using pop-up satellite transmitters. The socio-economic, fisheries` and socio-cultural aspects are mainly dealt with by the Tanzanian project partners. Care will be taken to ensure that the local fishing communities are closely involved, for example when describing the habitat, collecting samples and assessing the catch trend. This will mainly be done by using questionnaires and interviews. The results of the study on biological characteristics, the use of species and socio-economic aspects will be communicated to the state institutions and authorities along with proposals for an appropriate and practicable monitoring scheme. This also includes insights into potential threats to the species in the study area.
10.2020 - 9.2022