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Model profile TIPI-CAL / TYPICROP

TIPI-CAL and TYPICROP are production and accounting models used in the global agri benchmark network. Both depict the production systems, technology and the physical relationships on farm-level in detail. They have the same methodological approach, but run on different platforms. Fur-ther, TIPI-CAL can reflect a 10-year period for all output variables including a cash-flow, while TYPICROP shows a single year for each calculation.


Deterministic, recursive and dynamic (TIPI-CAL) simulation model with detailed reflection of arable farming, horticulture, dairy production, cow-calf poduction, beef finishing, piglet production, pig finishing, ewe farming, lamb finishing. Anylsis of performance, productivity and economics (cost, returns, profits). In the last years extension to environmental (among them greenhouse gas emissions), animal welfare and social indicators.

Main areas of applications

International comparisons of production systems and their economics, farm branch accounting, analysis of overall farm profitability, policy impacts, farm development strategies in collaboration with focus groups of farmers, consultants and professionals (practice change), mainly within the agri benchmark network.


No extrapolation at sector level, small number of data sets in most participating countries, approach to representativeness through the approach of typical farms and production systems and a standard operating procedure to define typical farms as well as the establishment of national networks.

Typical applications

Annual comparison of production systems and their economics, analysis of changes in the CAP and competitive trade policies (e.g. MTR, CAP 2020, free trade agreements, cost effectiveness of regulatory requirements), practice change analysis (growth, new technologies, sustainability analysis).

Most important cooperation partners

More than 80 cooperation partners in more than 60 countries: universities, research institutions, farmers' organisations, consulting institutions, ministries, marketers, agribusiness companies with competence in production economics.

Specific characteristics

  • Worldwide comparable, current data record with unique data depth
  • Feedback with producers, advisors and local experts to validate results and specify adaptation and development strategies
  • Partnership-based network approach

Data basis

Typical farms that are updated annually on the basis of a globally harmonised Standard Operating Procedure by the agri benchmark partners in cooperation with the agri benchmark Centre at the Thünen Institute of Farm Economics.

Regions / Countries / Companies

  • More than 60 countries worldwide
  • Different number of enterprises per country (1-8 in international comparison)
  • In some countries, branch-specific national networks of typical companies form the basis for international comparison (Australia, Brazil, France, Spain, USA)
  • Farm-level information in all countries in identical scope and depth

Sectors / Product differentiation

Detailed reflection of quantity and price structures in the product areas crop production, horticulture, milk production, cow-calf, cattle finishing, piglet production, pig fattening, ewe farming, lamb finishing. Example agriculture and horticulture: Detailed recording of the individual work steps to calculate the operating costs. Examples of cattle, sheep and pig farming: detailed herd simulation, weight, age and prices, feed rations.

Agricultural policy instruments and institutions

Production quotas, direct payments, decoupling, set-aside, greening, stocking densities; minimum management requirements, whole-farm analysis


Internal On-farm only: transfer of animals from dairy, suckler cow and ewe farming to branches of the finishing farm. Transfer of self-produced forage and cereals to livestock enterprises, transfer of manure and dung to crop and forage production.

Endogenous variables

Income, reinvestment depending on capital asset (land, buildings, machinery, livestock, working capital), cash flow module (TIPI-CAL), environmental indicators

Exogenous variables

Product prices, policy variables (e.g. area premiums, quotas), updating of technical coefficients, adaptation and farm development strategies (from focus groups)


Excel, Access

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