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Institute of

LV Rural Studies

Project

How accessible are basic services in different regions?



Heat Map of accessibility of public pharmacies by car and foot
© Thünen-Institut/Stefan Neumeier
Heat Map of accessibility of public pharmacies by car and foot

Analysis of the regional accessibility of selected basic services

Currently basic services are concentrated in cities and agglomerations. But does this mean that an under-supply exists in practice?

Background and Objective

Basic services fulfill people’s daily needs and have implications for their living conditions. Generally it is assumed that the living conditions of people residing in rural regions are deteriorating. This is due to out-migration, demographic change and the global dynamic economic growth that are influencing each other. It is suspected that the concentration of basic services in cities and agglomerations will cause an under-supply in rural areas. Against this background the project analyses the accessibility of selected basic services near the place of residence in Germany. This is amongst others done differentiated according to different region types based on a GIS accessibility analysis below the level of communities.

Approach

In order to be able to analyze the accessibility of basic services we developed a GIS-accessibility model that allows the nationwide modeling of accessibility situations. We decided to use an approach that does not focus on Euklidean distances, but on distances and travel times in traffic networks. To be able to analyze accessibilities below the administrative level of the communities we use a vector raster (grid) of 250 m x 250 m covering Germany  as base for the analysis. That is from every center (centroid) of the single grid cells we calculate the street distance and travel time to the next service location under consideration reachable. As base grid the so called EWZ25 of the Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development is used as this grid contains disaggregated population data for every grid cell based on the 2011 census. The accessibility analysis itself is based on the traffic network of the OpenStreetMap. Travel times are calculated based on the speed profiles of the OpenStreetMap for Germany.

Preliminary Results

Until now data for the following basic services are available for Germany:

  1. Street Petrol Stations (AIT-GRID)
  2. Public pharmacies (EWZ250)
  3. Supermarkets and discounters (EWZ250)
  4. ambulatory nursing services offering services according SGB XI (EWZ250)
  5. Accessibility of central places (EWZ250)

Thereby the results of the analysed services  are quite similar. In tendency longer distances have to be covered in rural areas, especially in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and in north-eastern Sachsen-Anhalt. Nevertheless the majority of people are able to access the services within a maximum driving time of 15 minutes by car. By foot within walking time of 15 minutes, except some singular exceptions, the services are only accessible in cities and agglomerations.

Duration

1.2012 - 12.2023

More Information

Project status: ongoing

Publications to the project

  1. 0

    Neumeier S (2022) Accessibility of COVID-19 Vaccination Centers in Germany via different means of transport. KN J Cartogr Geogr Inf 72:41-58, DOI:10.1007/s42489-021-00088-x

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn064514.pdf

  2. 1

    Neumeier S (2022) Die verkehrliche Erreichbarkeit der COVID-19 Impfzentren in Deutschland. Arbeitskreis Med Geogr Und Geogr Gesundheitsfor Deutschen Gesell Geogr(1/2022)

  3. 2

    Neumeier S, Kokorsch M (2021) Supermarket and discounter accessibility in rural Germany - identifying food deserts using a GIS accessibility model. J Rural Studies 86:247-261, DOI:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2021.06.013

  4. 3

    Herget M, Neumeier S, Osigus T (eds) (2020) Mobilität - Erreichbarkeit - Ländliche Räume ... und die Frage nach der Gleichwertigkeit der Lebensverhältnisse : Wissenschaftliche Konferenz, 17.-18. März 2020, Braunschweig ; Tagungsband MobilEr 2020. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 140 p

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn062125.pdf

  5. 4

    Neumeier S (2019) Erreichbarkeit durch die Polizei : Kennzahlen und Karten basierend auf einer kleinräumigen, flächendeckenden GIS-Erreichbarkeitsanalyse. Crisis Prevention(4):54-58

  6. 5

    Neumeier S (2019) Erreichbarkeit von Kindergärten in Deutschland - Kennzahlen und Karten. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 45 p, Thünen Working Paper 117, DOI:10.3220/WP1546589028000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn060693.pdf

  7. 6

    Neumeier S (2018) Erreichbarkeit durch die Polizei - Kennzahlen und Karten für Deutschland, basierend auf einer kleinräumigen, flächendeckenden GIS-Erreichbarkeitsanalyse. Kartogr Nachr 68(4):192-201

  8. 7

    Neumeier S (2018) Erreichbarkeit von Regelschulen in Deutschland: eine Betrachtung des ersten Bildungswegs nach Primarstufe, Sekundarstufe 1 und Sekundarstufe 2. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 87 p, Thünen Working Paper 113, DOI:10.3220/WP1544175754000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn060572.pdf

  9. 8

    Neumeier S (2018) Haus- und Facharzterreichbarkeit in Deutschland : regionalisierte Betrachtung auf Basis einer GIS-Erreichbarkeitsanalyse. Forum Wohnen Stadtentwickl(1):39-44

  10. 9

    Neumeier S (2017) Erreichbarkeit von Hausärzten in Niedersachsen und Bremen. Ber Geogr Landeskunde 91(4):307-328

  11. 10

    Neumeier S (2017) Haus- und Facharzterreichbarkeit in Deutschland : regionalisierte Betrachtung auf Basis einer GIS-Erreichbarkeitsanalyse. Raumplanung 192(4):30-37

  12. 11

    Neumeier S (2017) Regionale Erreichbarkeit von ausgewählten Fachärzten, Apotheken, ambulanten Pflegediensten und weiteren ausgewählten Medizindienstleistungen in Deutschland - Abschätzung auf Basis des Thünen-Erreichbarkeitsmodells. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 157 p, Thünen Working Paper 77, DOI:10.3220/WP1503653790000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn058983.pdf

  13. 12

    Neumeier S (2017) Why can street petrol station shops not be an alternative to a missing local food supplier? : Contribution to the German discourse on 'Daseinsvorsorge'. In: Heindl A-B, Steinführer A, Fick J, Breeck I, Kohring J, Küpper P, Neumeier S (eds) "New rural geographies in Europe: actors, processes, policies" : European Rural Geographies Conference ; June 14-17, 2017 ; Braunschweig, Germany ; Book of Abstracts. Braunschweig: Thünen-Institut, pp 89-90

  14. 13

    Neumeier S (2016) Accessibility to services in rural areas : the example for petrol service provision in Germany. DISP Planning Rev 52(3):32-49, DOI:10.1080/02513625.2016.1235877

  15. 14

    Neumeier S (2016) Regional distribution of ambulant nursing services in Germany : a GIS accessibility analysis. Raumforsch Raumordn Spat Res Plann 74(4):339-359, DOI:10.1007/s13147-016-0409-4

  16. 15

    Neumeier S (2015) Lokale Verteilung Ambulanter Pflegedienste nach SGB XI in Deutschland auf Basis eines rasterbasierten GIS-Erreichbarkeitsmodells. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 81 p, Thünen Working Paper 47, DOI:10.3220/WP1443169744000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn055660.pdf

  17. 16

    Neumeier S (2015) Regional accessibility of supermarkets and discounters in Germany - a quantitative assessment -. Landbauforsch Appl Agric Forestry Res 65(1):29-46, DOI:10.3220/LBF1439880683000

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn055523.pdf

  18. 17

    Neumeier S (2015) Street petrol station shops as an alternative to missing local food suppliers – Contribution to the German discourse on ‘Daseinsvorsorge’: A German view. Appl Geogr 60:150-164, DOI:10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.03.003

  19. 18

    Neumeier S (2014) Accessibility to public pharmacies in Germany. Dortmunder Beitr Raumplanung 143:155-173

  20. 19

    Neumeier S (2014) Modellierung der Erreichbarkeit von Supermärkten und Discountern : Untersuchung zum regionalen Versorgungsgrad mit Dienstleistungen der Grundversorgung. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 98 p, Thünen Working Paper 16, DOI:10.3220/WP_16_2014

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/bitv/dn053577.pdf

  21. 20

    Neumeier S (2014) Open source in accessibility analyses : Modeling of street petrol station accessibility in Germany [online]. OSGeo J 13:90-114, zu finden in <http://svn.osgeo.org/osgeo/journal/volume_13/pdf/OSGeoJournal_vol13.pdf> [zitiert am 09.04.2014]

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn053442.pdf

  22. 21

    Neumeier S (2013) Modellierung der Erreichbarkeit öffentlicher Apotheken : Untersuchung zum regionalen Versorgungsgrad mit Dienstleistungen der Grundversorgung. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, 66 p, Thünen Working Paper 14, DOI:10.3220/WP_14_2013

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/bitv/dn052778.pdf

  23. 22

    Neumeier S (2012) Modellierung der Erreichbarkeit von Straßentankstellen : Untersuchung zum regionalen Versorgungsgrad mit Dienstleistungen der Grundversorgung. Braunschweig; Hamburg: vTI, 90 p, Arbeitsber vTI Agrarökonomie 2012/09

    https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/bitv/dn052039.pdf

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