Skip to main content
[Translate to English:]
[Translate to English:]
Institute of

WF Forestry


Secondary cloud forests in Mexico (SCF)

© Tarin Toledo-Aceves

Sustainable management potential of secondary cloud forests in Mexico

Secondary cloud forests are gaining increased importance. Given the high ecological significance of cloud forests, specifically in the tropics, their re-establishment and the use of secondary cloud forests needs an improved scientific basis. This project uses the case of Mexico to asses challenges and benefits of their management, to study their ecology and based on this provide recommendations for their sustainable management.

Background and Objective

The sustainable management of Secondary Cloud Forests (SCF) poses many challenges, including the lack of legal definitions for secondary forests and the absence of effective policy instruments and economic incentives for landowners. There are also natural limitations of the system, due to small commercial timber volume for species in the established market economic profitability is reduced and this condition can deter management for the provision of timber. However, it remains an open question what is the economic value of the management of SCF for the production of timber. The lack of information for the management of SCF species adds to the constraints to support the development of management schemes. Sustainable management of SCF requires an understanding of forest dynamics; the influence of environmental factors on the growth rates of native tree species and tree regeneration dynamics, a critical establishment phase, are poorly known. While the natural recovery can occur, it can be frequently limited and in such cases restoration strategies are required.

The main goal of this project is to advance our understanding of the dynamics and potential for sustainable management of SCF by: (1) assessing the main challenges and benefits for sustainable management in Mexico, (2) estimating the potential productivity of timber and its economic value, (3) advancing the understanding of natural tree recruitment, and (4) evaluating the success of restoration plantings.


8.2021 - 7.2022

More Information

Project status: finished

List of Publications

  1. 0

    Toledo-Aceves T, Günter S, Guariguata MR, Garcia-Diaz M, Zhunusova E (2022) Financial revenues from timber harvesting in secondary cloud forests: a case study from Mexico. Forests 13(9):1496, DOI:10.3390/f13091496

  2. 1

    Toledo-Aceves T, López-Barrera F, Vásquez-Reyes V, Günter S (2022) Restoration of tropical montane cloud forest in bracken dominated pastures: The role of nurse shrubs. Forest Ecol Manag 508:120055, DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120055

  3. 2

    Toledo-Aceves T, Guariguata MR, Günter S, Porter-Bolland L, Merino L (2021) Overcoming key barriers for secondary cloud forest management in Mexico. Land 10(10):1078, DOI:10.3390/land10101078

  4. 3

    Trujillo-Miranda AL, Toledo-Aceves T, López-Barrera F, Günter S (2021) Tree diversity and timber productivity in planted forests: Pinus patula versus mixed cloud forest species. New Forests 52:177-195, DOI:10.1007/s11056-020-09787-1

  5. 4

    Toledo-Aceves T, Günter S (2021) Tropical montane cloud forests. FAO For Paper 185:120-125

    Scroll to top