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Ökologischer Betrieb
Ökologischer Betrieb
Institute of

BW Farm Economics


Photovoltaic systems on agricultural land

Different agrivoltaic concepts
© ValentinValkov -, jeson -, Fly and Dive -

Photovoltaics on agricultural land: Economy of different concepts

In order to implement the energy transition, more electricity from renewable energies is needed. Photovoltaic systems on agricultural areas are becoming more and more important in this respect. In order to produce food and electricity on the same area, we are investigating new photovoltaic concepts.

Background and Objective

Due to the energy transition, the expansion of electricity generation in photovoltaic systems (PV) is steadily increasing. The question arises as to how much agricultural land will be required in the future for electricity generation in photovoltaic systems and how the land requirement can be reduced. Against this background, we want to determine the current and future land requirements for different energy scenarios and photovoltaic concepts. In addition to classic ground-mounted PV, we are primarily looking at the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of new agrivoltaic concepts. Agrivoltaic combine agricultural land use with electricity generation in photovoltaic systems. One example is the system in Heggelbach, which allows conventional arable farming under elevated PV modules.


Based on the “Marktstammdatenregister”, we evaluate the current stock of PV on open spaces in Germany. Based on this, we use GIS analyses to determine how much agricultural land is currently being used for PV electricity generation and how the land was previously used. In order to be able to evaluate the land use by PV systems in terms of climate and energy policy, we compare energy yields, CO2 avoidance performance and CO2 avoidance costs with other types of renewable energy generation on agricultural land.

On the basis of existing energy scenarios for 2050, we then derive the land requirements for different PV concepts. We also analyse to what extent new agrivoltaic concepts could be integrated into farms and what synergy effects result for different types of farms. For this purpose, we calculate the profitability of different concepts under changed framework conditions. From the profitability determined, we can derive possible consequences, including for the land market.

Data and Methods

We determine the current land requirement for ground-mounted PV based on data from the “Marktstammdatenregister” and with the use of GIS analyses. For the economic analysis of future agrivoltaic concepts, the results of experimental and pilot systems are used. In discussions with experts, we want to find out whether and how agrivoltaic concepts can be implemented and integrated in farms.

Our Research Questions

  • How much agricultural land is currently required in Germany for ground-mounted PV?
  • How can photovoltaic systems and agricultural use be combined in order to reduce competition between uses?
  • How economical are agrivoltaic systems compared to classic ground-mounted PV?
  • How do different PV concepts and expansion scenarios affect the land market?


8.2020 - 3.2025

More Information

Project status: ongoing

Publications to the project

  1. 0

    Böhm J (2022) Die Konflikte entschärfen. DLG Mitt(4):14-17

  2. 1

    Böhm J, Witte T de, Michaud C (2022) Land use Prior to Installation of Ground-mounted Photovoltaic in Germany - GIS-analysis Based on MaStR and Basis-DLM. Z Energiewirtsch 46(2):147-156, DOI:10.1007/s12398-022-00325-4

  3. 2

    Böhm J (2022) Nach dem Mais nun die Solaranlagen? DLG Mitt(2):80-81

  4. 3

    Böhm J, Witte T de, Plaas E (2022) PV-Freiflächenanlagen: Rahmenbedingungen und Wirtschaftlichkeit. Ber Landwirtsch 100(2):1-31, DOI:10.12767/buel.v100i2.421

  5. 4

    Böhm J (2022) Wie viele landwirtschaftlichen Flächen sind bereits durch PV-Freiflächenanlagen aus der Produktion genommen? [online] DLG Mitt(04.01.2022):1-5, zu finden in <> [zitiert am 01.02.2022]

  6. 5

    Trommsdorff M, Berwind M, Schwenke J, Kammann C, Stoll M, Kärtner T, Hannus V, Müller K, Schurr U, Meier M, Pataczek L, Schweiger A, Wydra K, Heintze G, Eisel D, Feistel U, Wild K, Böhm J, Gerhards C, Schneider J, et al (2021) Begleitforschung im Forschungsnetzwerk erneuerbare Energien - Photovoltaik : Themensteckbrief der Arbeitsgruppe Agri-Photovoltaik. 20 p

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