Microbiom analyses - method development and bioinformatics
Development of molecular methods to characterize the soil microbial communities from soils and other natural and technical habitats
The objective of this work is to develop a new methodological repertoire to characterize the diversity and functions of microbial communities and utlize this knowledge for protecting and exploiting these activities for a sustainable use in agroecosystems.
Background and Objective
Microbial activities provide the basis for a sustainable use of agricultural soil, growth promotion and pathogen defence of crops, degradation of organic material and their conversion to high quality fertilizers as well as to produce bioenergy.
All these beneficial activities are provided by collaboratiive efforts of microbial communities. Their single orgnaisms and their interaction within communities, as well as their variability in response to environmental changes are largely unkown.
New molecular methods based on direct analyses of nucleic acids provide a tool to understand such communities and to develop stratiegies to utilize these activities for an ecologically friendly agriculture.
Method development relates to those independent of cultivating microorganisms on nutrient containing media in the laboratory:
- Extraction and purification of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) from environmental samples (soil, groundwater, gut contents, ...)
- PCR for quantification of microbial groups and genetic profiling von communities
- Sequencing of the microbiom from soils and other relevant habitats (compost, biogas reactors, ...)
- Optimization of bioinformatic tools to analyse large datasets
- Specific detection methods for beneficial and pathogenic microbial community members, the latter also with the objective to avoid experimental use of animals as much as possible.
- Connection of structural and functional microbial community analyses by using isotopically labelled nucleic acids, e.g. SIP (stable isotope probing)
Our Research Questions
- Who is doing what in a microbial community? Who cooperates, who fights with each other?
- How variable are the communities, which members are important for function, which members are not important? How does the diversity respond to enviromental changes?
Methods were developed to extract DNA and RNA from soil and to characterize the identity and activity of soil microorganisms without the need of cultivation. A genetic profiling technique was developed which allows to study the impact of environmental factors on microbial communities at the scale of a whole agro-ecosystem.
New methods for sequencing metagenomis have been estabilshed, bioinformatic tools are now available
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