Secretariat

Annette Pontillo
Institute of Organic Farming

Trenthorst 32
23847 Westerau
Phone: +49 4539 8880 0
ol@thuenen.de



Delicious chips and French fries made from organic potatoes

Project

 (c) Thünen-Institut / Herwart Böhm

Optimizing of the organic potato production for french fries and chips

For years consumers in Germany have been consuming more and more processed potato products, such as chips or potato crisps, than fresh potatoes. But the predominant proportion of organically produced potatoes is marketed as table potatoes, so that the proportion of processed organic potato products has up to now been low. Reasons for this are the high, specific required quality demands for potato processing and a low consumer demand for table potatoes.

Background and Objective

In Germany, the acreage of organically cultivated potatoes has been about 8,000 ha for many years. So far, only a small proportion of organic potatoes is processed into chips or potato crisps. Specific varieties have to be cultivated if chips and potato crisps are to be processed. These differ significantly from the required quality criteria for those potatoes for human consumption. This is applicable to both, external (e.g., grading size) and internal quality criteria (starch content, reducing sugar content, etc.), as well as for the suitability for storage. Only through targeted, purposeful and production adapted to the specific conditions of Organic Farming can the high demands of the processing sector be fulfilled.

The aim of the project was to work out strategies for the production of high-quality processing potatoes under the conditions of Organic Farming. Therefore the focus was set on the effects of agronomic measures (choice of varieties, preceding crops, irrigation, and organic fertilisation).


Results

For a successful potato cultivation for processing not only a high yield is necessary, but also the high product-specific quality standards for chips and potato crisps set by the processing industry must be fulfilled. Chips, for example, require a high proportion of large-grading tubers, for potato crisps rigorous criteria consist for the content of reducing sugars. To avoid high sugar contents, the potatoes are stored at 8°C, which increases the demands on the suitability for storage. The choice of variety is of crucial importance. So, the varieties Agria and Marena can be recommended for chip production, they showed high tuber yields of the required size grade (> 50 mm) and a good quality at harvest and after storage. For processing to potato crisps the variety Marlen is suitable, which was relatively stable in storage. Depending on the degree of maturation process the tolerable concentrations for reducing sugars after storage can be quickly exceeded. Therefore, the 4°C varieties Sempra and Verdi are an alternative, but their yield was not satisfying.

Furthermore results confirm that all agronomic possibilities regarding a good nutrient and water supply as well as the seed-tuber treatment should be exploited in order to achieve high yields with the required tuber sizes and an addressing quality of raw materials. In particular, legumes crops (field peas with a following catch crop or clover-grass leys) are well suited as a previous crop. The clover-grass management (cutting or mulching) has no significant effect on yield, grading and product quality. On light, sandy soils a quality-promoting fertilization of potassium – via stable manure or mineral fertilizer accepted in Organic Farming is a high recommendable tool.

On light soils a uniform water supply must be ensured by irrigation, it also contributes to an improved N-use of organic fertilizer. N-containing organic fertilizer (horn meal) showed better results compared to stable manure. While agronomic measures had an effect on the processing quality, a much more strong effect was given by the weather conditions and the so dependent growth pattern.

Conclusion: processing potatoes can be successfully cultivated when site- and farm-specific circumstances are involved.



Thünen-Contact


Involved external Thünen-Partners


Funding Body

  • Bundesprogramm Ökologischer Landbau (BÖLN)
    (national, öffentlich)

Duration

5.2003 - 10.2005

More Information

Projekt type:
Project funding number: BÖL 03OE003
Funding program: Bundesprogramm Ökologischer Landbau und andere Formen nachhaltiger Landwirtschaft (BÖLN)
Project status: finished

Publications

hits: 9

  1. Dresow JF, Krause T, Haase NU, Loges R, Hess J, Böhm H (2013) Effect of different defoliation systems of ryegrass–clover on yield and selected quality parameters of organic potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for industrial processing at harvest and after storage. Potato Res 56(3):179-204, doi:10.1007/s11540-013-9239-8
  2. Dresow JF (2013) Optimization of organic potato production : influence of agronomical measures on yiels and quality of table potatoes and processing potatoes. Kassel: Univ Kassel, 157 p p, Kassel, Univ, Diss, 2013
  3. Böhm H, Krause T, Haase T, Haase NU, Loges R, Hess J (2006) Agronomic strategies for the organic cultivation of potatoes for processing into high quality French fries and potato crisps. In: Haase NU, Haverkort AJ (eds) Potato developments in a changing Europe. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publ, pp 86-97
  4. Krause T, Haase T, Böhm H, Hess J, Loges R, Haase NU (2006) Pflanzenbauliche Strategien für die ökologische Erzeugung von Verarbeitungskartoffeln : Teil 4 ; Sortenwahl und Standort. Kartoffelbau 57(5):208-214
  5. Krause T, Böhm H, Loges R, Taube F, Haase NU (2005) Auswirkungen der Beregnung von Kartoffeln in Abhängigkeit der Stallmistdüngung auf den Ertrag, die Qualität sowie die Verarbeitungseignung zu Pommes frites und Chips. Mitt Gesellsch Pflanzenbauwiss 17:118-119
  6. Krause T, Böhm H, Loges R, Taube F, Haase NU (2005) Einfluss unterschiedlicher Kleegrasnutzungssysteme auf Ertrag, Sortierung und Qualität ökologisch erzeugter Verarbeitungskartoffeln. In: Hess J, Rahmann G (eds) Beiträge zur 8. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau "Ende der Nische" : Kassel, 1.-4. März 2005. Kassel: Kassel Univ Pr, pp 43-46
  7. Krause T, Haase T, Böhm H, Hess J, Loges R, Haase NU (2005) Influence of variety and site on yield structure and quality of potatoes for processing to chips in organic farming. In: Ritter F, Carrascal A (eds) Abstracts of papers and posters : 2 Poster presentation of the 16th triennial conference of the EAPR, European Association for Potato Research EAPR-2005, July 17 to 22, 2005, Bilbao, Spain. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlatritzaren Argitalpen Zerbitzu Nagusia, pp 676-678
  8. Krause T, Böhm H, Loges R, Taube F, Haase NU (2005) Production of potato crisps and chips in organic farming: effect of sprinkler irrigation, manure and preceding crop management of clover grass on yield and quality. In: Ritter F, Carrascal A (eds) Abstracts of papers and posters : 1 Programme and oral presentations of the 16th triennial conference of the EAPR, European Association for Potato Research EAPR-2005, July 17 to 22, 2005, Bilbao, Spain. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlatritzaren Argitalpen Zerbitzu Nagusia, pp 420-424
  9. Böhm H, Haase T, Putz B (2002) Verarbeitungseignung und Ertrag von Kartoffeln aus ökologischem Landbau. Kartoffelbau 53(8):323-329