The study assesses the inﬂuence of logging activities on the decline of ecosystem services and ecosystem service multifunctionality; and explores the potential of successional forests, plantations, and agroforestry systems for the recovery of ecosystem services and ecosystem service multifunctionality.
The results reveal that the ecosystem service multifunctionality, the above-ground carbon stocks, the timber potential volume, the non-timber forest products, plant diversity, and plant endemism have synergetic relation. Whereas the soil carbon stocks, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in soil presented contrasting patterns. The above-ground carbon stocks showed synergetic relation with several ecosystem services and the ecosystem service multifunctionality, suggesting that the above-ground carbon stocks could serve as umbrella service for the conservation of provisioning services, regulating services, and biodiversity.
Logging activities result in a decline in ecosystem service multifunctionality, with high impacts on timber volume potential and above-ground carbon stocks, reaching critical thresholds. In this sense, sustainable forest management with the implementation of reduced impact logging techniques are recommended to halt forest degradation in the study areas.
From the recovery phases, the successional forest was the most effective in recovering single ecosystem services and ecosystem service multifunctionality. These results show the importance of the successional forest to recover carbon pools, to provide timber and non-timber products, and to sustain plant diversity, which in practice are not yet incorporated sufficiently in management and conservation strategies. However, since more provisioning services are needed by the local population, it is also important to integrate options such as agroforestry systems and plantations.