Spinrad presented NOAA’s expertise and perspective for future research in a public talk at IOW. He highlighted the importance of long-term monitoring for the development of reliable scientific advice to policy makers, but also the necessity to make basic data available to a wider public. To do so, NOAA experiments with making big data accessible through e.g. Google and Amazon. Another important point related to our work was his plea for a clear communication of uncertainties of the scientific basis, and the significance of human behaviour, as humans are the recipients of our advice or are effected by it. After his talk and short presentations of the three policy-advising marine scientific organisations bin the northeast, the Leibniz Institute of Baltic Sea Research (IOW), the Federal Maritime Agency (BSH) and the Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (Thünen OF), there was an opportunity for further exchange among the heads of the organisations. Spinrad concluded his 5-day visit to research organisation in Germany working in NOAA’s field (in Potsdam, Offenburg, Kiel and Warnemunde) later today.