Institute of Fisheries Ecology

Herwigstraße 31
27572 Bremerhaven
Phone: + 49 471 94460 201
Fax: + 49 471 94460 199

DAIMON 1&2 - How to manage dumped munition in the Baltic sea


 (c) Thomas Lang

Decision aid for marine munitions

Dumped Munition in the Baltic Sea pose a potetial risc for the environment. Baltic Sea contains the legacy of ca. 50 000 tons of dumped chemical munitions and more than 200 000 tons conventional munitions originating from the I and II WW. Which chemicals or metabolites are detectable in fish? Do they pose a threat for fish, do they affect fish health and how can the dumped munition been managed? These questions are adressed in the the research project DAIMON.

Background and Objective

Chemical and conventional ammunition dumped in the Baltic Sea and in the Skagerrak contains a wide range of hazardous substances. Considering the growing use of the seabed for economic purposes, such as offshore wind farms and pipelines, the likelihood of disturbing dumped containers with chemical warfare agents (CWA), causing direct emissions to the surrounding environment and risk of human and wildlife exposure, is increasing. In addition, the containers are deteriorating due to e.g. corrosion. For these reasons there is an ongoing discussion on how to assess and manage the environmental risk of dumped ammunition, especially in areas where their location is likely to cause a conflict with maritime activities.

DAIMON aims on better evaluation of the risks and benefits of various management options. The environmental effects of CWA and conventional munition will be assessed in order to make proper risk assessments. DAIMON will develop techniques for the assessment of impacts of the dumped ammunition on ecosystem, maritime activities and humans as seafood consumers.


Thünen will contribute to field studies (Walther Herwig III and Clupea), laboratory experiments and caging studies with fish. Parameters under investigation will be e.g. fish diseases, liver histopathology, biological effects techniques, toxicity test of relevant metabolites with zebrafish embryos and chemical analytics of TNT and it major metabolites.

In DAIMON2 the Thünen Institute will organize two workshops to convey the relevant methods to stakeholders. One of the workshops will take place on a research vessel.

Links and Downloads

Interreg Baltic Sea Region


Involved Thünen-Partners

Involved external Thünen-Partners


3.2016 - 4.2021

More Information

Projekt type:
Project status: ongoing


Results 1 - 5 of 6

Begin   back   next   end

  1. Koske D, Goldenstein N, Rosenberger T, Machulik U, Hanel R, Kammann U (2020) Dumped munitions: New insights into the metabolization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Baltic flatfish. Mar Environ Res 160:104992, DOI:10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104992
  2. Koske D, Straumer K, Goldenstein N, Hanel R, Lang T, Kammann U (2020) First evidence of explosives and their degradation products in dab (Limanda limanda L.) from a munition dumpsite in the Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 155:111131, DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111131
    pdf document (limited accessibility) 363 kb
  3. Niemikoski H, Koske D, Kammann U, Lang T, Vanninen P (2020) Studying the metabolism of toxic chemical warfare agent-related phenylarsenic chemicals in vitro in cod liver. J Hazard Mater 391:122221, DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122221
  4. Koske D, Goldenstein N, Kammann U (2019) Nitroaromatic compounds damage the DNA of zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Aquatic Toxicol 217:105345, DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105345
  5. Czub M, Kotwicki L, Lang T, Sanderson H, Kluawk Z, Grabowski M, Szubska M, Jakacki J, Andrzejewski J, Rak D, Beldowski J (2018) Deep sea habitats in the chemical warfare dumping areas of the Baltic Sea. Sci Total Environ 616-617:1485-1497, DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.165

Results 1 - 5 of 6

Begin   back   next   end