FishForFood - Development of Low Costs Feeds for Tropical Aquaculture for Local/Regional Markets

For 2.9 billion people, fish is the most important source for animal protein. The increase of the demand can only be met by increased aquaculture production, which requires feed inputs.  Aim of the project isthe developmentof fish feeds from protein rich by-products of tropical biofuel production.

Background and Objective

Worldwide around 17 % of animal protein for human consumption are from fish (FAO 2006). For 2.9 billion people, fish is the most important source for animal protein. A rise of the fish supply in populous countries of Asia and Africa, like India, China or Egypt, through an increase of production in semi-intensive aquaculture of Carp and Tilapia is possible. Aim of the project is to develop the needed low-cost-feed for carp and tilapia from protein rich by-products of the biofuel production.

In arid and semi-arid regions Jatropha curcas L. is one of the most important plants for biofuel production. The press cake has a very high protein content (>60 %). Due to the high level of anti-nutritive substances (especially phorbol esters), the use of jatropha meel as animal feed was not possible to date. However a process for detoxification is available now. First tests using the detoxified material as food for fish and shrimp had promising results. On the base of this material, enriched with lysine, a supplemental feed for tilapia and carp for regional markets in tropical countries shall be developed. Finally, the feed will be tested in outdoor ponds close to practical fish farm conditions in the tropics.


Feeding trials with carp and tialpia as two model species of high importance for local fish markets in the tropics and subtropics, gradually replacing fishmeal by detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal and testing of different feed additives (enzymes, organic acids) on growth and body composition of fish as well as digestibility of feeds.


Under this project, the suitability of Jatropha curcas kernel meal (JKM) as fish feed ingredient has first been tested in comparison to experimental, fishmeal based diets, showing good results (see publications). In the next step, practial diets with low fish meal content were used as control. Fishmeal protein was gradually replaced up to 100% by the corresponding amounts of JKM. Under laboratory conditions, for carp, fishmeal could be completely replaced by JKM without compromising fish growth. The experiments with tilapia are ongoing, the verification of lab trials in open air is pending.


Involved external Thünen-Partners

Funding Body

  • Federal Office for Agriculture and Food (BLE)
    (national, öffentlich)


10.2011 - 6.2018

More Information

Projekt type:
Project funding number: 2817301510
Funding program: Innovationsförderung
Project status: finished


Results 1 - 5 of 9

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  1. Krome C, Schuele F, Jauncey K, Focken U (2018) Influence of a sodium formate / formic acid mixture on growth of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed different fishmeal replacement levels of detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal in practical, mixed diets. J Appl Aquacult 30(2):137-156, DOI:10.1080/10454438.2017.1412845
  2. Krome C, Jauncey K, Focken U (2016) Jatropha curcas kernel meal as a replacement for fishmeal in practical Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus feeds. AACL Bioflux 9(3):590-596
    pdf document (limited accessibility) 82 kb
  3. Focken U, Krome C, Jauncey K (2015) Do oxalates from plant-based aquafeeds impede growth of common carp Cyprinus carpio? In: University of Belgrade, Serbia / Faculty of Agriculture (eds) VII International Conference Water & Fish : Conference Proceedings ; June 10-12, 2015. Belgrade: University of Belgrade, Serbia / Faculty of Agriculture, pp 49-55
  4. Krome C, Jauncey K, Focken U (2014) Development of aquafeeds for tilapia and carp using detoxified Jatropha carcas meal as protein source. In: Tielkes E (ed) Tropentag 2014 : Bridging the gap between the increasing knowledge and decreasing resources ; Book of abstracts ; Wednesday - Friday, Sept. 17-19, 2014 Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. Prague: Czech University of Life Sciences, p 163
  5. Krome C, Jauncey K, Fedderke S, Focken U (2014) Effect of replacing different levels on dietary fishmeal with Jatropha carcas kernel meal on the development of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). J Appl Ichthyol 30:507-512, DOI:10.1111/jai.12414

Results 1 - 5 of 9

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