Within Genome Research studies focus on the interrelations between genome structure and functioning, as well as the dependency of these interactions on environmental factors in forest trees. Hereby, especially traits of importance for adaptation and of economical interest are investigated for their geographic variability. Furthermore, molecular markers are developed for the evaluation of forest gene resources. These markers are employed in practical applications of marker-supported selection, as well as provenance and species identification. For the protection of native forest ecosystems the consequences of genetic engineering are evaluated. Hereby, research focuses on the benefits, potentials and risks of genetic engineering, including those of genetically engineered trees. Methods are developed to identify signatures of genetically modified genomes in trees and wood for the improvement of consumer protection.